Topics from Book “Cosmic Gateway” related to Cosmology and Particle Physics


We must appreciate this fact that we are living in the world where anything is possible, the only thing required is the power to perceive it. We cannot negate this fact that we are living in a cosmic space which is unique and infinite in nature.

It is one of the cosmological principles that matter distribution in universe is homogeneous and isotropic. This principle was devised because of the vast space which lies in between different cosmic objects or entities of the universe.
There are two independent Friedmann equations for modeling a homogeneous, isotropic universe. The first is:
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The second is:
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3 is the Hubble parameter. G, Λ, and c are universal constants (G is Newton’s gravitational constant, Λ is the cosmological constant, and c is the speed of light in vacuum). k is constant throughout a particular solution, but may vary from one solution to another. a, H, ρ, and p are functions of time.

Entropy of the universe is defined by the degree of disorder and the amount of ingredients it possesses. So if by any cosmic phenomena the entropy of our universe is increased then the cosmological principle fails which is based on homogeneous and isotropic space assumption as in that case there would be more matter in space.
Entropy is defined by big S.
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Where Ω is the number of accessible microstates and where kB = 1.381×10−23 J K−1 (through out the rest of this post k will represent Boltzmann constant and K the unit of Kelvin) is the Boltzmann constant in units of Joules per Kelvin.
The present total entropy of the observable Universe is Sobs = 3.1×10104 k

CELESTIAL MECHANICS

Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects. Our earth revolves around the sun, our solar system revolves around Milky Way galaxy and everything in our Milky Way galaxy is revolving around the super massive black hole which resides in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. It is that super massive black hole which has the energy to stabilize the mechanics of all the objects present in our Milky Way galaxy. If by any reason that black hole will disappear then all the objects in the galaxy will rip apart to a disturbed state of cosmic space. In the cosmos, whatever thing is disturbed eventually turns to stability as the time goes on. So this is obvious that our disturbed Milky Way galaxy objects will settle down in some other state of configuration.
In order to understand celestial mechanics, we have to go systematic ie.
First of all we have to define the celestial objects or entities. Now there are many entities and we can classify them and put them in different groups or set.
For instance, all planets will be in planet group. All stars will be in a star group
Now there are sub-groups and super-groups also. Eg. Sub-group star has super-group galaxy.
There might be different kind of relationships that exist between groups; in order to understand it we may use set-theory and group theory.
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After defining object then next step is to define its motion or movement which is fixed and follow a particular orbit.
Many Body theory gives the value of resultant vector in space and provide the clue about the direction and motion of trajectory of a particular particle or object which is there in the network of multiple particles or objects.
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PARTICLE THEORY

Before big bang everything was just a point nothing but a single point. Quantum fluctuation in higher dimensional space caused big bang.
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Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/

Then the fundamental forces of nature and matter were created due to big bang. Without the existence of hyper-space of higher dimensions it would not have been possible to have the universe seed which will grow till today and also in future. Considering particle theory, all around us we are surrounded with different kind of particles in a cosmic space. Particles differ because of different energy levels in which they exist. There are different kinds of properties linked up with particles. Eg. They can combine or collapse it all depends upon entropy of space and there energy states well. There is no logic behind particle movement as it is random in nature, but as time goes on then randomness changes into a stable configuration.

Let’s consider one fundamental question ie. What is light?
To address this we have to find the source of the light first. Now there can be lot of different kind of reasons to explain the origin of light in space. It could be due to some supernova explosion or collision among heavenly bodies like galaxies or stars.
Light is a disturbance in the space caused by particles residing in different energy levels? Light travels only because of particles which pass there exited states to one another like a team of workers.

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There is a standard model of particle physics which categorizes the existing particles so far.
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Ref: http://phys.org/

In order to simulate the conditions of big bang, Particles accelerator & Hadron colliders have been invented. In these facilities, lot of different kind of particles have been invented but still there are many other which are not yet found although exists theoretically. For instance Gravitational force is assumed to be created by graviton which is not invented yet and much sophisticated observatories have to be built.
So one thing is clear that everything around us is the result of particles exiting in space. Whenever there is creation of particle we say its property of Higgs field and higher dimension state. Every particle has some properties which makes that particle unique. One of this is its sphere of influence with which particle interact with other particles. Our cosmic space which is void has endless number of particles in it which may be in resting stage in Higgs field or moving with certain energy level.

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How mass is attached to particle:
Mainly we have two type of particles ie. Mass carrying and Mass-less particles. When these two kinds of particles collide, then either another particle appears in the space or two colliding particles glue to each other to make a composite particle. So mass is transferred as mass oriented particle is glued to mass less particle.

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Teleportion via Quantum entanglement
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Fundamental forces of nature:
There are mainly four fundamental forces of nature that we know.
1. Strong nuclear
2. Gravitational
3. Weak nuclear
4. Electromagnetism

• The strong interaction is very strong, but very short-ranged. It acts only over ranges of order 10-13 centimeters and is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together. It is basically attractive, but can be effectively repulsive in some circumstances.
• The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects such as the repulsion between like electrical charges or the interaction of bar magnets. It is long-ranged, but much weaker than the strong force. It can be attractive or repulsive, and acts only between pieces of matter carrying electrical charge.
• The weak force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions. It has a very short range and weak.
• The gravitational force is weak, but very long ranged. It is always attractive, and acts between any two pieces of matter in the Universe since mass is its source.

If we consider particle model, then we can easily prove that mainly we have mass carrying particles which move in space along with mass-less particles.

We can assume our earth as a big particle made up of small mass carrying particles. So intrinsically earth should have force around it which we name as gravitation. Now every celestial object has gravity around it which could be of any shape but we assume it to be of spherically symmetric in nature.

Similarly, we can devise that electromagnetism is the force which is the resultant of mass-less particles and strong nuclear force in atom is also a kind of particle oriented force.
If we consider particle theory to explain every physical phenomenon then our notion will change and we will have much simpler theoretical models to understand the world around us.

Feynman Diagrams

These are the theoretical diagrams of particles that move around in space. The kind of motion that the particles take is understood by studying the framework built by observing the experiments done in particle accelerators.

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Ref: http://plus.maths.org/

Hunt for the source

The statement that God has created our universe is still a mystery for many of us who believe what we can test and seek scientific explanation for it. From the ancient Greeks we have learned and adapted the theory of cause and effect. It can be of different type.

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There is a vague idea that persists in the pseudo-science that we are created by some higher force or entity. One of the evidence behind this can be felt and understood by considering the kind of complexity that exists around us. If we want to find the source then human race have to collaborate and unite with each other. Here in our world, there is lot of hindrances eg socio-political, economic and other kind of problems which controls our life but if we can see the bigger picture then we surely will diverge the humanity to a better world which will be cosmos dominating. In order to unveil the secrets of higher dimension, we first have to sort out the conflicts on our planet. There should be universal collaborative project that should focus on how to make space colonization possible.

Is our Conscious a controller of everything?

Some believe that whatever reality we see around us is basically an illusion. Our conscious create the things. Without conscious there would be no object to admire or perceive. Now this is a bit philosophical to ask who controls all conscious which resides in our brain. Sometimes it happens that whatever we imagine we get those results. However imaginary world is not real but an illusion. Science prospective states that conscious is nothing but some electrical signals that are created by our will in the Neuro-anatomical regions of our brain. So our conscious states what we are and the notion of self.

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